FIBER-WIRELESS FIWI ACCESS NETWORKS CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES PDF

Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: Challenges and opportunities, Article. orig-research. Bibliometrics Data Bibliometrics. · Citation. This article highlights key enabling optical as well as wireless technologies and explains Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: Challenges and opportunities. A plethora of enabling optical and wireless technologies have been emerging to build future-proof bimodal fiber-wireless (FiWi) broadband access networks. attention to the technical challenges and opportunities of FiWi networks, but also .

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In the downlink, pilots and data are transmitted to the mobile terminals, whereas the uplink is used to feed channel state information from the mobile terminals back to the CU to adapt the precoding filter.

Furthermore, the MIP problem takes into account a wide range of important constraints with regard to user assignment, ONU installation, BS installation, capacity, and channel assignment, as well as signal quality and interference.

In this section, we highlight some of the recently proposed techniques to provide QoS continuity across the acceess interface of FiWi access networks. Showing of 95 extracted citations. The second proposed heuristic optimizes the placement of ONUs by means of simulated annealinga widely used combinatorial opportuniyies technique. Toward this end, in the central hub ajd the FiWi network a network terminal continually monitors the buffer depth of each OLT for the downstream traffic.

Furthermore, FiWi research also includes the study of different remodulation schemes for the design of colorless i. As recently explained by Perez in her excellent work on the implications of financial collapses [ 88 ], there have been four previous situations equivalent to the current crisis in the past two centuries since the first industrial revolution. The proposed implementation can support advanced path diversity techniques that use a combination of transmission via several APs and multihop relaying, for example, cooperative diversity or multihop diversity.

Also note that the capacity of the PON is much higher than that of the wireless front-end such that peer-to-peer traffic can be easily carried in the opportunitiex backhaul without suffering from any serious throughput penalty.

Specifically, a risk list contains the following six fields: Wireless access networks, on the vhallenges hand, potentially go almost everywhere but provide a highly bandwidth-constrained transmission channel susceptible to a variety of impairments. In FiWi networks, traffic may go from wireless end-users to the Internet or from one wireless client to another wireless client.

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It is important to note that there is a difference between OWI and free-space optical wireless OW communications.

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After describing recent progress, we elaborate on the role of FiWi access networks in the dawning age of convergence and outline some exciting research directions for future FiWi access networks. Finally, we fiber-wirelesz some conclusions in Section 6. In addition, DARA performs admission control, where a packet is admitted into the wireless mesh only if the predicted delay along the computed path is below a predetermined threshold.

This trend is expected to become even more pronounced over the next couple of decades. In doing so, the access gateway knows the estimated waiting time for its next poll and can thus calculate the transmission delay in the optical domain more accurately.

Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) Broadband Access Networks in an Age of Convergence: Past, Present, and Future

To help identify open key research challenges for NG-PONs and converged FiWi broadband access networks, it is important to consider emerging trends in related areas in order to shift the post NG-PON2 research focus from mere capacity provisioning to more lucrative solution offerings by developing holistic groundbreaking solutions across multiple economic sectors other than telecommunications per se.

Section 2 describes related research topics and defines FiWi access networks as a new research area.

More precisely, if the primary gateway fails, then all the paths to that gateway become stale and packets destined for the primary gateway are rerouted through live PGG paths. In FiWi fiher-wireless, peer-to-peer traffic can be carried in two ways: Each ONU deploys a pair of fixed-tuned transmitter and fixed-tuned receiver at dedicated upstream and downstream wavelength channels. Accees [ 4748 ], a new routing algorithm, called capacity and delay aware routing CaDARwas proposed with the objective to distribute the radio capacity of a single-radio wireless mesh network node optimally among its outgoing links such that the average delay is minimized.

Toward this end, the challneges heuristic deploys the wireless access points or base stations fiber-wirfless, determines their transmission radius, and assigns channels to them such that the carrier-to-interference ratio does not drop below a certain threshold. FMC can be done at different levels, for example, business or service provisioning level. In RoF networks, RFs are carried over optical fiber links between the CO and multiple low-cost remote antenna units RAUs in support of a variety of wireless applications, for example, microcellular radio systems [ 14 ].

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Recent progress in optical fiber technologies, especially the maturity of integration and new packaging technologies, has rendered optical fiber access networks a promising low-cost broadband solution.

The presented simulation results show that under different network sizes the proposed tabu search heuristic outperforms random and fixed ONU placement schemes in terms of achievable network throughput, especially for an increasing number of ONUs.

Citations Publications citing this paper. Apart from capacity, one of the major differences between the optical and wireless parts of FiWi access networks is the fact that optical wired links are much more reliable than their wireless counterparts, whose transmission characteristics depend on a number of different parameters.

The delay along different paths may be different and may vary over time. The presented simulation results opportnities that the network throughput gain of FiWi networks is zero compared with traditional WMNs when all traffic is destined to the Internet, that is, no peer-to-peer traffic, since the interference in the wireless front-end represents the major bandwidth bottleneck. According to [ 23 ], the following four architectures can be used.

The presented simulation results indicate that DARA outperforms other routing algorithms such as minimum hop routing, shortest path routing, and predictive throughput routing in terms of delay. Subsequently, each link is challenegs its delay as weight and CaDAR computes the shortest delay path for each pair of wireless mesh router and gateway. To enhance the reliability of the wireless link, the CO sends information to two different APs path diversity.