He originated the concept of Lebensraum, or “living space,” which relates human groups to the spatial units where they develop. Though Ratzel pointed out the. in the work of Friedrich Ratzel and his formulation of the concept of Lebensraum. The paper argues that the Ratzelian Lebensraum must be viewed as a concept. The concept of Lebensraum—or “living space”—served as a critical component in Renowned German geographer Friedrich Ratzel coined the term in

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The idea of increasing Germany’s strength by encouraging migration to Germany’s colonies had developed during the s and s. Karlsruhe, Germany, 30 August ; d. Influenced by thinkers including Darwin and zoologist Ernst Heinrich Haeckelhe published several papers. Ratzel produced the foundations of human geography in his two-volume Anthropogeographie in and To further German population growth, Hitler rejected the ideas of birth control and emigration, arguing that such practices weakened the people and culture of Germany, and that military conquest was the only means for obtaining Lebensraum:.

What happens to ftiedrich Russian, to a Czech, does not interest me in the slightest. In the process this region came to be seen not as a complex mix of ethnic groups located in specific territories, each with its own distinct history and culture, but simply lebensdaum ‘space’ Raum.

The third work, his three-volume History of Mankind —outdated as it is, still merits respect as a milestone in the history of ethnography. The Russians in the Soviet Union. Penguin Dictionary of International relations.

Ethnic and Racial Studies: Hitler considered Rosenberg an expert on Russia and became equally persuaded of the link between Bolshevism and the Jews. Early in his career as leader lebsnsraum the Raztel, Adolf Hitler said he would accept friendly relations with the USSR, on condition that the Soviet government re-establish the disadvantageous borders of European Russia, which were demarcated in the Treaty of Brest-Litovskwhich made possible the restoration of Russo—German diplomatic relations.

The post-war German government, hoping to dominate the new Baltic republics, encouraged this process and promised land to the troops.

Friedrich Ratzel | German geographer |

The situation became formalised with the treaty of Brest-Litovsk, signed by the new Soviet regime in March In the lebensrauj to Anschluss and the invasion of Poland the propaganda of Nazi Party in Germany used popular feelings of wounded national identity aroused in the aftermath of the First World War —18 to promote policies of Lebensraum.


Inhe went to Rapperswil on the Lake of ZurichSwitzerlandwhere he began to study the classics. Following Legensraum Hitler’s rise to powerLebensraum became an ideological principle of Nazism and provided justification for the German territorial expansion into Central and Eastern Europe.

Until then, states with their borders were considered static, bound to a certain geographic location.

Both broke completely with the crude environmentalism of earlier centuries, which had sought to show how topography and climate actually determine human behaviour, and they substituted the more subtle and sophisticated insights into…. Some of Ratzel’s work was of uneven quality, for example, in the world survey of ethnology, but much of it was based on acute observation in his wide travels.

Ideology and Ethics Against Human Dignity. Popular German acceptance of the atrocities was achieved by way of Nazi propaganda print, radio, cinemaa key factor behind the manufactured consent that justified German brutality towards civilians; by continually manipulating the national psychology, the Nazis convinced the German people to believe that Jews and Slavs were Untermenschen subhumans.

In he went through the Hungarian plains, where he was fascinated by the signs of recent agricultural settlement, and the Carpathians, where he found German-speaking communities. Studies of the homeland focused on the lost colonies after the rebirth of sovereign Poland which was ratified by the Treaty of Versailles Volk ohne Raumas well as the “eternal Jewish threat” Der ewige Jude This important book was probably the first political geography to tackle each problem methodically and to treat the subject scientifically.

The term Lebensraum was coined by the German geographer, Friedrich Ratzel Lebensraum would be realised by way of ethnic cleansingthe forcible removal of the native Slavic and Jewish populations, and the subsequent repopulation of the border strip with ethnic-German colonists; likewise, the colonisations of Lithuania and Ukraine; yet military over-extension lost the war for Imperial Germany, and the Septemberprogramm went unrealised.

Vlasov and the Russian Liberation Movement: The settlers were to consist mainly of war veterans and urban workers, who were meant to be the key to ensuring the ‘physical and ethical health’ of the German nation.

His first substantial geographic study, a two-volume treatise on the United States —is not markedly different in scope or organization from twentieth-century regional texts.

Species that successfully adapted to one location, he thought, would spread naturally to others. Cities, War and Terrorism: His early concept of lebensraum was not political or economic but spiritual and racial nationalist expansion.


Indeed, he went on to argue that, in order frieddrich remain healthy, species must continually expand the amount of space they occupy, for migration is a natural feature of all species, an expression of their need for living space.

One cannot expect the highest level of performance from people who are called beasts, barbarians, and subhuman.

Hitler and ‘Lebensraum’ in the East

It was thought that sending settlers to colonies could be an attractive alternative to simply trading in their raw materials. Harvard University Press, pp. Operating under the slogan of ‘German Work’, Oberost aimed to introduce a modern form of bureaucratic, technocratic, rationalised government in an area which the German occupiers regarded as semi-barbaric.

This article abides by terms of the Creative Commons CC-by-sa 3. The conquest of froedrich space for Germany was the foremost foreign-policy goal of the Nazis towards establishing the Greater Frierdich Reich that was to last a thousand years.

Views Read Edit View history. Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval. Influenced by the American geostrategist Alfred Thayer MahanRatzel wrote of aspirations for Friesrich naval reach, agreeing that sea power was self-sustaining, as the profit from trade would pay for the merchant marineunlike land power.

The Friedrixh Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

The Nazi usages of the term Lebensraum were explicitly racist, to justify the mystical right of the “racially superior” Germanic peoples Herrenvolk to fulfil their cultural destiny at the expense of “racially inferior” peoples Untermenschensuch as the Slavs of Poland, Russia, Ukraine, and the other non—Germanic peoples of ” the East “.

Pre-war intellectual fashion Ratzel’s ideas very much accorded with intellectual fashions in late 19th- and early 20th-century Germany, where various forms of ‘Social Darwinism’ were prevalent, and where there was a growing concern about the allegedly negative effects of industrialisation and urbanisation. Retrieved from ” https: