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When seismic behavior of C M walls is governed by flexural deformations, as is shown in Figure horizontal bending cracks at lower courses of the panel may extend into tie columns ends and shear them off at large deformation levels Zabala et al J “Some topics on the seismic behaviour of confined masonry structures.
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Furthermore, removal of outliers resulted in only two specimens with ceramic units remaining, and therefore, the model should not be applied to C M walls with ceramic units. The proposed equations are all deterministic in nature, and model uncertainties are accounted for using standard deviations. Demonstration of its superior seismic performance in successive moderate and severe earthquakes, as is evident from Figurehas led to a steady increase in the mamposterka of C M walls.
Post-cracking seismic performance of C M walls is further improved by the inclusion of confinaca confining elements, simply because they restrain the extent of damage Blong et al, ; Marinilli and Castilla, Performance-based seismic models for confined masonry wall Figure illustrates mampoxteria analytical and experimental backbone curves of two specimens that entirely comply with the limitations of the proposed model.
To date, the model has been developed on the basis of laboratory monotonic and cyclic quasi-static tests incapable of reflecting seismicity, soil conditions, and ground motion characteristics, and without taking into account the inherent inferiority of in-situ C M walls as compared to laboratory tests with highly controlled construction and material qualities.
Performance-based seismic models for confined masonry walls Yamin, L. Post-peak behaviour of a typical CM wall Zabala et al, For multi-story C M walls, experimental results and aftermath of earthquakes Figure suggest, damage mainly concentrates in the first story, and in the direction of motion.
Table summarizes the mean, median, coefficient of variation, coefficient of determination, and the number of data points included in the development of the equation for each model parameter. However, the contribution of panel shear strength, vm, to maximum shear capacity is minimal compared to other variables.
Damage Pattern o initiation of flexural cracks along the height of tie columns. Constructive effect of opening confinement on post-cracking seismic performance of CM walls Leonardo et al, Despite the fact that many codes call for horizontal and vertical confining elements at opening borders, it is sometimes not clear what size of openings should be provided with these tie columns and bond beams.
However, this loading method with cycles per deformation level may not be consistent with earthquake loading that typically results in a few cycles with large deformations before reaching the ultimate limit state. Existing models for cracking and maximum shear strength of CM walls 34 Table However, Figure b, in which data with the same characteristics are connected with dash lines, indicates that an increase in the normalized longitudinal reinforcement ratio will generally result in an increase in the measured shear strength.
The appendices report the process of data selection, developing both dynamic and static databases as the basis of the analytical work, and contain the results of the proposed equations for each model parameter.
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Key factors that characterize loading conditions of the quasi-static tests in terms of units, notations and general definitions are presented in Table A However, for the experiments that are only supplemented with the mean recorded response, result parameters are only presented in terms of their average values. The simplest method of visually searching for relationships between model parameters e. However, i f designed and constructed properly, C M walls made of hand-made units, as the results of full-scale tests by Zabala et al confirm, would still perform satisfactorily in earthquakes.
As a result, some specimens within the database are either provided with single rebar rather than multiple longitudinal reinforcement and spiral hoops, or are left horizontally unreinforced, to investigate how these factors would affect the seismic response of confined masonry walls.
Equation predicts the mean shear strength with a coefficient of determination, R 2equal to 0. The ultimate deformation capacity of typical C M panels, however, is about 0. Statistical distribution of CM wall design variables Figure B Relatively squat C M walls with aspect ratios close to one are frequently used in practice.
This improvement has been achieved at only marginally higher cost, thereby giving this structural system an economic feasibility. Due to the lack of data for slender walls, Equation was also developed for panels with aspect ratios less than 1.
Table A – l 1 documents the range, average and variability of the most important loading parameters. Since post-peak behaviour of C M walls is governed by the reinforcement detailing of tie columns ends, these critical zones should be provided with tightly spaced stirrups Zabala et al, Unit type and tie column transverse reinforcement, based on statistical tests and the results of regression analysis, also proved insignificant and were therefore excluded from the process at an early stage.
These topics, together with existing models for prediction of seismic performance of C M walls, are described in detail throughout this chapter.
References in periodicals archive? Performance-based seismic models for confined masonry wall the hysteretic curve was given for the panel mid-height or the top.
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Distribution of the number of tie columns 88 Figure A However, when panels are weakened by the presence of openings cracks form at the corners of openings and propagate towards the middle of the piers. A tri-linear backbone dash line coninada Figure awas then fit to the smooth backbone for each individual test. In order to incorporate the effect of panel aspect ratio mamposteroa cracking and maximum shear strength equations, fundamentals of the C M behaviour for slender walls discussed above, and previous models were consulted.
Comparison between existing models for a typical CM wall a Cracking shear strength, b Maximum shear strength 24 Figure Multiple regression analysis using the least square method.