Editors’ Note: In her well-known book on The Shadow Negotiation, Kolb focused .. 4 See Deborah M. Kolb & Judith Williams, Breakthrough Bargaining, in a dynamic we have come to call the “shadow negotiation” – the complex and “Breakthrough Bargaining,” by Deborah M. Kolb and Judith Williams, which. Breakthrough Bargaining. RM By Deborah M. Kolb and Judith Williams. Power moves; Process Breakthrough Bargaining. Negotiation.
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Interaction Level and Gender Construction Gender can also become salient because others expect that and act as if gender matters.
Harvard Business Review on Winning Negotiations by Harvard Business Review
Walters, Breakthgough Differences in Negotiation Outcomes: For women to achieve high joint gains, in this case profit, they need to be primed to pay more attention to their own needs. Interpretive Perspectives on Gender Interpretive perspectives shift the focus away from essentialist characteristics of men and women to the negotiation interaction itself. For those interested in Family Mediation training In terms of gender, this means that one party to a negotiation can delegitimize the other party through making gender or other aspects of status and identity salient to the process.
Although this work embraces an interactional view of gender, the research itself centers on outcomes rather than the micro processes that lead to them. Unspoken, subtle parts of a bargaining process–also known as the shadow negotiation–can set the tone for a successful negotiation. In the latter situation, if the women want benefits to accrue to them, they bartaining to negotiate about this norm—an act that the men generally do not have to do.
Attending to these social processes expands the strategic repertoire necessary for effective negotiations and provides bargainers with opportunities to connect during the process. The micro-processes through which this occurs have been invisible in most of the negotiation literature.
Breakthrough Bargaining by Rajkamal Mazumdar on Prezi
This research in the organizational field focuses on second generation gender issues. Meta-analyses of these studies have shown only small statistically significant differences and on just two dimensions: Putnam, Through the Looking Glass: Second generation issues shape how gender plays out in workplace negotiations. Transformation also aims for negotiated settlements, but for ones that attend to relational and identity concerns in addition to substantive matters.
Work by Michele Gelfand and her associates looks at what they call relational self-construal, that is, the degree to which negotiators access a relational self. This research, conducted by Kathleen McGinn, Hannah Riley Bowles, Linda Babcock and Michele Gelfand, indicates that gender differences are more likely to be observed in distributive as opposed to integrative bargaining, when negotiators represent themselves rather than function as agents, and when situations are ambiguous as opposed to being structured.
In this approach, interdependence is negotiated rather than surfacing as a residual or byproduct of an agreement. Situational Effects and Gendered Constructions The effort to identify situational triggers that make gender more or less likely to be salient in a negotiation is another area of recent scholarship. Second, the advice from this work may itself be gendered and subject to gender stereotypes that people use to judge behavior. Power and control in negotiation are important matters but they have generally not been considered from a process perspective.
Appreciative moves alter the tone or atmosphere so that a more collaborative exchange is possible. A gender lens, in contrast, presents an alternative view of interdependence and why it is important in negotiation. Aspiring leaders are expected to willingly take on developmental opportunities—to refuse may preclude another offer.
Working outside of the actual bargaining process, one party can suggest ideas or marshal support that can shape the agenda and influence how others view the negotiation.
In this way, gender is not an individual characteristic, but both a means and an outcome of the ways parties socially construct negotiation. These strategic moves breaktbrough guarantee that all bargainers will walk away winners, but they help to get barfaining negotiations moving–out of the dark of unspoken power plays and into the light of true dialogue.
The gender lens perspective, in contrast, asks fundamental questions about the itself, particularly the lolb of negotiators as advocates and the way that bargqining assumptions permeate the bargaining process. Individual Level and Gender Roles One way gender gets mobilized in negotiations concerns identity and how salient gender is to an individual negotiator. To focus on gender difference—whether to bemoan it or celebrate it—treats gender as an essential individual and stable characteristic of men and women.
Second, it fails to recognize that gender is hierarchically arrayed in society, and so to focus on difference is to accept a false symmetry in which the masculine emerges as the standard and the woman as the other. Using this lens, we focus on what is silenced or ignored in the field.
The effort to identify situational triggers that make gender more or less likely to be salient in a negotiation is another area of recent scholarship. However, these behaviors when enacted by a woman are likely to be seen differently than they are when men employ them. These strategies, such as baggaining the status quo in an unfavorable light, can help parties realize that they must negotiate: A double bind test for a woman leader is the question can she be a leader and a woman too?
Consider, for example, the opportunity structure in one organization. Similarly, Lisa Barron, in her studies of salary negotiation, identifies masculine and feminine orientations that are not necessarily defined by gender.
A feminist view of relationships calls for reframing such traditional concepts as interdependence and bargaining power. A second conceptualization, promotive interdependence, stems from the integrative bargaining literature. The challenge is to understand how parties enact negotiation in a particularly gendered barrgaining. Second, interdependence involves change and learning through a stance of curiosity that recognizes that dialogue and mutual inquiry are necessary, even in negotiation, to understand and appreciate the other person.
One way gender gets mobilized in negotiations concerns identity and how salient gender is to an individual negotiator. Work on stereotyped threat in which negotiators are primed with particular gender stereotypes indicates how these expectations influence outcomes.
In a field that prides itself on pragmatism, the advice that results from this stream of research is problematic. After many years of indifference, the study of gender is now an important area of scholarship in negotiation.
This norm may work well for males, who are likely to be offered developmental opportunities in key strategic positions, but it does not work effectively for women, who often get offered human resource assignments, with questionable benefits to their careers. Endnotes  Deborah M. First, the approach treats men and women as internally homogenous categories, yet we know there is considerable variability within bargainign sexes.
Schneider and Christopher Honeyman. Interpretive perspectives emphasize the fluidity, flexibility, and variability of gender-related behaviors.
Looking at negotiation through a postmodern lens highlights the sources and consequences bargainng these power inequities.
Assertiveness, self-orientation, and an instrumental focus may backfire against women. Conversely, when researchers link bargaining effectiveness to feminine traits, women surpass men in the amount gained from the negotiation. Process moves affect how negotiation issues are received by both sides in the process, even though they do not address substantive issues.