Cockroft Walton Voltage Multipliers. The classic multistage diode/capacitor voltage multipler, popularized by Cockroft and Walton, is probably the most popular. Abstract—This paper primarily describes a Cockcroft Walton voltage multiplier circuit. The objective of the project is to design a voltage multiplier which should. For now I’ll thoroughly explain principle part and its assumptions. First assume that voltage doubler and cw multlipier is not loaded. Voltage doubler circuit: Let at .

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Using only capacitors and diodes, these voltage multipliers can step up relatively low voltages to extremely high values, while at the same time being far lighter and cheaper than transformers. One can also tap the output from any stage, like in a multitapped transformer.

Iload is the load current C is the stage capacitance f is the AC frequency n is the number of stages.

In a full-wave rectifier it is three times the input voltage. This circuit can be extended to any number of stages.

Cockroft Walton Voltage Multipliers

With each change votlage input polarity, current flows up the “stack” of capacitors through the diodes, until they are all charged.

As the number of stages is increased, the voltages of the higher stages begin to “sag”, primarily due to the electrical impedance of the capacitors in the lower cpckroft. Retrieved from ” https: It is walotn popular for relatively low powered particle accelerators for injecting into another accelerator, particularly for heavy ions. Unlike cockrof Cockcroft-Walton multiplier generatorthe Marx generator need air for the spark gaps and can not be immersed in oil as an insulator.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cockcroft-Walton generators. They also are used in everyday electronic devices that require high voltages, such as X-ray machinestelevision setsmicrowave ovens and photocopiers. As you can see from this equation, the ripple grows quite rapidly as the number of stages increases as n squared, in fact. In some applications, this is an advantage. For substantial loads, the charge on the capacitors is partially depleted, and the output voltage drops according to the output current divided by the capacitance.


Assume the circuit is powered by an alternating voltage V i with a peak value of V pand initially the capacitors are uncharged. It is cockrott in virtually every television set made to generate the kV second anode accelerating voltage from a transformer putting out kV pulses.

In this case, the ripple is: An Introduction to Mechanics 2nd ed.

A modification to the classic CW multiplier, popularized by XXX, uses two charging stacks driven by out of phase input walron. The XXX modification is illustrated in the following figure. Articles needing additional references from March All articles needing additional references Commons category link is on Wikidata. This is particularly popular in electrostatic accelerator cockrofh and high voltage x-ray systems, where low ripple desired.

By driving the CW from a high-frequency source, such as an inverteror a combination of an inverter and HV transformer, the overall physical size and weight of the CW power supply can be substantially reduced. Views Multippier Edit View history. This article needs additional citations for verification. It has the advantage of requiring relatively low-cost components and being easy to insulate. The high ripple means that there is a signficant energy spread in the ion beam, though, and for applications where low ripple is important at megavolt potentials, electrostatic systems like Van de Graaf and Pelletron machines are preferred.

Taken from the High Power Microwave Transmitters report by North, here is a three phase multiplier circuit. Furthermore, the ripple on the output, particularly at high loads, is quite high. In some applications, an addtional capacitor stack is connected to the output capacitor stack in the above design.

And, when supplying an output votlage, the voltage ripple rapidly increases as the number of stages is increased this can be corrected with cockkroft output filter, but it requires a stack of capacitors in order to withstand the high voltages involved.


Differentiating the drop equation with respect to the number of stages gives an equation for the optimum number of stages for the equal valued capacitor design:. Cockcroft—Walton circuits are still used in particle accelerators. The sag can be reduced by increasing the capacitance in the lower stages, and the ripple can by reduced by increasing the frequency of the input and by using a square waveform. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. It cocktoft made up of a voltage multiplier ladder network of capacitors and diodes to generate high voltages. A similar circuit multipleir the Marx generatorwhich wakton the same “ladder” structure, but consists of resistors, capacitors and spark gaps. It was named after the British and Irish physicists John Douglas Cockcroft and Ernest Thomas Voltgae Waltonwho in used this circuit design to power their particle acceleratorperforming the first artificial nuclear disintegration in history.

After the input voltage is turned on.

March Learn how and when to remove this template message. The CW circuit, along with other similar capacitor circuits, is often called charge pump.

Cockcroft–Walton generator

It also inherently produces a series of stepped voltages which is useful in some forms of particle accelerators, and for biasing photomultipler tube dynodes. To understand the circuit operation, see the diagram of the two-stage version at right. Note the three human figures at top center for scale. One way to look at the circuit is that it functions as a charge “pump”, pumping electric charge in one direction, up the stack of capacitors. The key to the voltage multiplication is that while the capacitors are charged in parallel, they are connected to the load in series.