Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) is a self-report instrument designed to measure defense mechanisms. Although commonly used, the. J Nerv Ment Dis. Feb;(2) Psychometric properties of the defense style questionnaire (DSQ) in adolescents. Ruuttu T(1), Pelkonen M, Holi M. Request PDF on ResearchGate | On May 1, , H Chabrol and others published Validity study of DSQ (Defense Style Questionnaire. The item version).

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In addition, she is also interested in psychological measurement and statistics. After the completion of the questionnaires, children were debriefed and thanked for their participation. The Greek version of the Defense Style Questionnaire: To determine the number of factors, we examined the goodness of fit for each proposed model based on criteria of goodness of fit, interpretability of the solution, and strength of parameter estimators.

However, we retained two defenses: The goal was to see how the 20 individual defenses loaded onto factors, commonly referred to as defense styles. Archives of General Psychiatry33 5— Journal of Youth and Adolescence29 3— On the individual defenses, girls reported more use of reaction formation, but less anticipation, denial, and dissociation. This factor involves maladaptive defense mechanisms, reported also by Ruuttu et al. Please review our privacy policy. I often find myself being very nice to people who by all rights I should be angry at.

Defense Style Questionnaire

Two hundred and sixty-five children and early adolescents took part auestionnaire this study, of which Lastly, we considered the interpretability edfense the results by examining the factor pattern loadings Table 2.

There is someone I know who can do anything and who is absolutely just and fair. Next, we examined the scree plot as proposed by Cattell as a graphical method for determining the number of factors.


The third factor, also in line questtionnaire Ruuttu et al. An empirically validated hierarchy of defence mechanisms. The ego and the mechanisms of defense. The second factor consists of immature defenses: If I have an aggressive thought, I feel the need to do something to compensate for it. I’m able to keep a problem out of my mind until I have time to deal with it.

Finally, the Immature factor was negatively associated with both paternal and maternal acceptance and with Psychological well being. To our knowledge, this is the first study exploring the psychometric properties of the DSQ in an early-aged sample. The study supports previous findings concerning gender differences in defense use. Issues of anonymity and confidentiality were particularly quetsionnaire, along with the voluntary participation in the study.

Lastly, studies have linked immature defense mechanisms with the development of various psychological difficulties such as anxiety and depression Blaya defensr al.

Her main research interests cover aspects of decision-making under risk and personality. Archives of General Psychiatry43 8— The Psychological Well-Being scale PWB consists of eight items describing important aspects of human functioning ranging from positive relationships, to feelings of competence, to having meaning and purpose in life.

This is possibly indicating either lower levels questionnaiee stress for qusstionnaire of this age-range or a feminine defense in terms of changing the inner affect Cramer, The protective role of father acceptance in the relationship between maternal rejection and bullying: Method Participants Two hundred and sixty-five children and early adolescents took part in this study, of which Cramer suggests that: The fourth factor comprises neurotic defenses indicating defensw intermediate defense style that appears more private comparing to immature action-oriented and image-distorting image oriented defenses.

Construct Validity Table 4 presents the correlation coefficients between each of the four DSQ defense styles. On the basis of those criteria, two defenses were excluded; sublimation mature factorand realization mature factor had loadings on different factors than the original and it was difficult questionnairf interpret them.


I work out my anxiety through doing something constructive and creative like painting or woodwork.

Table 5 shows the regression coefficient, Wald statistic, and odds ratio for each of the three predictors. Two defenses, sublimation and rationalization, failed to contribute to this factor. The four factor structure comes out well, in spite of cross-loadings. Psychoanalytic thinking in education. Exploring associations between students’ defense styles and approaches to learning. Lastly, in the third analysis, we entered again the four DSQ factors as predictor variables and Victimization as predicting variable.

Psychometric properties of the defense style questionnaire (DSQ) in adolescents.

Studies exploring the factor structure of DSQ present altered versions revealing, three Muris et al. However, none of these versions has been used widely. High scores signify that respondents view themselves in very positive terms in diverse areas of dfeense. It is suggested that mature defenses protect against bullying behaviours supported by a positive perception of psychological well-being and parental acceptance Fonagy, Discriminant Validity We also compared use of defenses between genders; girls reported less use of mature and image-distorting styles than did boys.

Greater maturity of defense styles was associated with lower scores in bullying behaviours and with higher scores of psychological well-being and parental acceptance. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology38 The determination of defense style by questionnaire.

Psychometric evaluation of a shortened defebse of the item Defense Style Questionnaire.

Implications for preventive inclusive strategies.