DZONGKHA GRAMMAR PDF

Donor challenge: Your generous donation will be matched 2-to-1 right now. Your $5 becomes $15! Dear Internet Archive Supporter,. I ask only. The Dzongkha Development Commission is very pleased to present the first Dzongkha grammar with such a wide scope, and the Commission feels indebted to. Dzongkha, or Bhutanese is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken by over half a million people in Bhutan; it is the sole official and national.

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In other words, there is no shame in being careful about your own belongings. For example, both the 25th and 26th of October were the 7th day of the ninth lunar month of the Iron Horse Year. Dzongkha transliteration Roman English. The Brokpas are yakherds in the eg of Tra- shigang district. They can therefore be easily recognized. Fixed expressions The following are some fixed expressions in Dzongkha.

Other Tibeto-Burman languages ofBhutan 18 7. The boys and girls are bathing naked dzongkhq the river. No part of this book may be reproduced without prior consent in writing grammra the publisher, except for properly referenced quotations in scholarly publications.

Other members of the Bumthang group, ‘Nyenkha, Tibetan border in the north. As soon as he goes, I’ll come [i. Suffixes and postpositions opportunity, exigency and probability 3. However, Dzongkha C is pronounced [tp] without aspiration, i. In practice, the standard dialect as spoken by native. Taba- Khengkha and the Tshangla speaking areas.

As a man does, so does a dog. In this con- nexion it should be noted the Dzongkha equivalent to an English adjective may be? The Rzongkha ge of those who dwell in the east’ and its speakers as Sha- pas are called Brokpa and their dzongkua Brokpa mat.

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The difference between Dzongkha grammwr and 6 is more often one of timbre than of length. The vil- larity of what Aris describes with the native garb of the lages names Loto Kucu and Sanglong are Nepali toponyms.

In other words, it expresses a perseverative Aktionsart. The villages on the sou- thern slopes overlooking the Khomachu are also Khoma- kha speaking. Such constructions with the infinitive in combination with The following sentence illustrates a special usage gramar the auxiliaries are dealt with in Chapter Seven.

It is also related to other languages spoken in Bhutan, such as Chocangaca, Brokpa, Brokkat and Lakha.

Dzongkha language, alphabet and pronunciation

P yangce twenty score-twentyscore 9. That child just [sits there and] keeps on crying.

Each of the sixty years in the cycle has a Sanskrit name, which we know today only by its ancient Tibetan translation. Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers. I just don’t know what’s the matter. In a question with respect to a second person refe- rent, such as question 44the speaker is inquiring about the health of the second person, the state of which the speaker necessarily assumes is a matter of personal know- ledge to the second person.

The moment of reference is taken to be in the present, unless the context specifies otherwise, as in sentence 92 below. Education Department of the Royal Thimphu: Dmngkha and Choke 30 9. Recall that Dzongkha d is a dental sound pronounced with the tip of the tongue against the back of the teeth.

Dzongkha Lessons

Qll changed the name of the Gorkhali Gorkhas set out to conquer the three Newari kingdoms of language to N epMI, although the British in particular had the Kathmandu V alley. If you like this site and find it useful, you can support it by making a donationor by contributing in other ways.

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The younger gene- ration, although many have learned Tibetan from their parents, are growing up as assimilated Dzongkha speaking Bhutanese citizens. Town-the inspection do-[inf] be An inspection of the town will have to be conducted. UII the listener consciously experienced.

He-[erg] letter wrire-[pot]-[Q] not-know she is so very beautiful. Sikkim but have adopted 26 27 Bhutanese dress. I can’t sleep at all at night because the dogs keep The suffix -J. Dzongkha kll is followed by the high register tone. Ngoma-d0 i I tomorrow office-in work do-[infj be This example only be real This explains why so many of the staunch supporters of Bzongkha in Bhutan are native speakers of other languages of the kingdom.

Dzongkha Grammar

The suffix -sh expresses ezongkha on the part of the speaker vis-k-vis the listener. A construction similar in meaning to the past participle is “”‘ According to local lore, the village is named “‘ “”‘ The growing tendency in spoken Dzongkha to treat the form song as a hard stem verb SO in allegro speech accounts for the inflected form in dzognkha Both tr and thr are followed by the high register tone. In sentences 43 and 44the speaker reports speech acts performed by the subject which were going on in past time.

Many of destination, like English ‘in’, e.