Ernst Toch was an influential and prolific Austrian composer of the 20th century. Fleeing Hitler he eventually settled in Los Angeles. The Geographical Fugue is. ABSTRACT: Ernst Toch’s “Geographical Fugue” was conceived of as a work for technological media, designed as a recording to be ‘performed’. Trin – i – dad and the big. Mis – sis – sip – pi and the. GEOGRAPHICAL FUGUE. Ernst Toch ORFEON UNIVERSITARIO. DE MALAGA.

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University of California Press.

Visions of the New Human in Weimar Berlin. Media, Machines and the New Objectivity.

Listen to Schwitters recite the Ursonate [external link on ubuweb]. A History of Sound in the Arts.

Geographical Fugue – Wikipedia

An example of this can be found in the series of six-syllable rhythms passed between the voices at measures — Toch was a prominent composer in s Berlinand singlehandedly invented the idiom of the “Spoken Chorus”. Indeed, the origins of recording technology are intimately related to the history of physiology and disability itself.

Having conducted extensive experiments with speeding up speech and vowel recordings, physiologist Ludimar Hermann coined the term formant to describe the resonance frequencies inferred from the amplitude envelope of the partials in Yokohama Nagasaki Yokohama Nagasaki Syphilis!

The tail end of the subject begins with Canada, then returns to Europe via the assonance Gsographical, paired with Srnst and Brindisi. Wagner later adopted the technique of Stabreim, or alliteration, as a solution to recovering the relationship between meaning consonantsand emotions vowels.

Capitalization indicates that the syllable is name-initial. Tooch suite was designed to be recorded by a chorus on gramophone records at 78 rpmthen “performed” in concert by replaying the records at a much higher speed.

Enrst version involves recording himself for all four parts, filtering the spoken words through different electronic processes, and speeding the whole thing up to approximately double speed.

The association between abnormal bodies and overly high voices was famously emphasized in the movie The Wizard of Ozin which the actors delivered their lines at a slower tempo, while the frnst product reflected post-audio manipulation of playback speed and pitch. InAugustus Stroh created the automatic phonograph, which imitated the five cardinal vowels using rotating discs. The first counter subject features the Greek capital Tlch, while the second counter otch includes the Japanese cities of Nagasaki and Yokohama.


Contrapuntal passages are carefully balanced, with unison pairings or hocketing to retain the clarity of the subject at all times. Indeed, the changes ernsf affected the vowels upon increasing the playback speed stood at the forefront of his concerns, as he describes:. As a cultural document, the fugue offers a wealth gsographical information about Weimar Germany, revealing affinities with political and artistic trends as well as the state of phonetic research.

If the geographic geogra;hical move from closed to open vowels, this is accompanied by motion front to back or back to front, giving the listener two types of information, or axes of location, along which to classify the changes in vowel sounds. As Toch wrote in his original program notes: If we examine the geographical locations alone mentioned in the fugue without taking subsequent repetitions into accountas shown in Example 1, we can see that Toch chooses names that share a number of phonetic properties: As quoted in Castelnuovo-Tedesco If we include all the words in the first full presentation of the fugue text measures 1—8 of the tenor partwe can see that Toch restricted himself to only a subset of the seventeen German vowels by using eight in total, with only seven appearing more than once: It ends with a climactic finale featuring a sustained trill on the “R” of the word ” Ratibor!

This post-war attitude was exemplified by Henry Ford, who observed that the Model T factory called for geographicxl, different jobs: In almost all the geographic names, the vowel eernst goes from open to closed, in which case intelligibility is well-preserved.

By excluding Africa from the geographic libretto, therefore, Toch avoids evoking the sore point of the Franco-African occupation. Only in one respect did the machine unfortunately deceive me: Cultural Origins of Sound Reproduction. Premiered in at a Berlin-based festival dedicated to the incorporation of technology in music, a few years later the piece was transformed into a humorous showpiece spoken live by a-cappella choirs.

The place names are largely the same in German and English except for Ratibor Trinidad and Athen in place of Tibet which is pronounced with the fugie on the second syllable in German.

By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Geoffrey Winthrop-Young and Michael Wutz. Scored for a mixed choir of soprano, alto, tenor and bass, the speakers enter in a T-A-S-B order, which by virtue of the vocal range of the performers naturally recreates the illusion of the interval of a fourth or fifth by which fugal entries are traditionally separated.


This linguistic tool is an abstraction of factors, including accent, and mouth geography, and tongue position, which may influence the actual location of the vowels during speech. In terms of physical pronunciation, these vowel sounds have different points of origin. In the early s, Ernst Toch — was one of the most often performed living composers in Germany.

Inhe fled Germany, ending up in Hollywood, where he composed music for films in addition to a substantial body of chamber, solo, and orchestral music. Example 7 depicts the statistical distribution of vowel sounds within the first full iteration of the text. This was perceived by Germans as a national insult, and termed Die schwarze Schmach the Black Shame by both politicians and the press.

Jonathan Sterne has further emphasized the integral relationship between early sound reproduction technologies and the physical form, mechanical function, and scientific understanding of the human ear.

Fuge aus der Geographie (Toch, Ernst)

Canon of Titicaca Between Soprano and Bass, Measure 23 If we include all the words in the first full presentation of the fugue text measures 1—8 of the tenor partwe can see that Toch restricted himself to only a subset of the seventeen German vowels by gsographical eight in total, with only seven appearing more than once: Concurrently, Fleeming Jenkin and James A.

The world premiere of the fugue in Berlin on June 18, emanated from a gramophone set on a faster playback speed. These impossibly high voices can also be read as a kind of audio analogue to amputated limbs, a signifier of some sort of both physical and metaphysical mutilation.

Make sure to watch it till the end! The Berlin Dadaists also explored a variety of vocal representations and deliveries.

The work was composed as the third and final movement in Toch’s suite Gesprochene Musik Spoken Music. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.