Psychology From an Empirical Standpoint · Franz Brentano. Routledge () Brentano and Wundt: Empirical and Experimental Bradford. Franz Brentano (). Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint. I. The Concept and Purpose of Psychology. Source: Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint. This standpoint is clearly mirrored in his empirical approach to psychology. It is noteworthy.
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If someone says that natural science is the science of bodies, and he means by “body” a substance which acts on our sense organs and produces presentations of physical phenomena, empirocal assumes that substances are the cause of external appearances.
This standpoint is clearly mirrored in his empirical approach to psychology. Consciousness in 19th Century Philosophy.
Similarly, there would also be certain general laws which determine the actual appearance of such an idea. We are told there that the psychologist has the task, first of all, of investigating what the soul is, and then of investigating its properties, some of which appear to inhere in it alone and not in the body, and, as such, are spiritual.
Nevertheless, these two cases are not wholly identical. But even if this could not be established so clearly, we would still have to doubt their veracity because there would be no guarantee for them as long as the assumption that there is a world that exists in reality which causes our sensations and to which their content bears certain analogies, would be sufficient to account for the phenomena. He seems to admit that next to concrete things there are irrealiathat is, objects that to not really exist but have the status of thought-objects or, as he puts it, entia rationisthat do not have an essence and do not stand in causal relations.
Psychology from An Empirical Standpoint
Other interprets have taken more cautious lines. Thus, while judgments and emotions consist in taking either a positive or a negative stance, the value of a presentation is always positive, but comes in degrees: Since we can be intentionally directed towards them, they must subsist bestehen.
And they use the expression “mental phenomena” or “mental appearances” as completely synonymous with “mental states”, “mental processes,” and “mental events,” as inner perception reveals them to us.
In so doing, they in no way restrict the domain of the natural sciences.
Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint – Wikipedia
Chrudzimski and Smith, Without the use of psychology, the solicitude of the father as well as that of the political leader, remains an awkward groping.
Happily, the opposite is true.
So it appears that just as the natural sciences study the properties and laws of physical bodies, which are the objects of our external perception, psychology is the science which studies the properties and laws of the soul, which we discover within ourselves directly by means of inner perception, and which we infer, by analogy, to exist in others.
Mathematics, Experience, and Laboratories: Is it not clear that all the smallest noticeable differences must be considered equal to one another? John Locke once conducted an experiment in which, after having warmed one of his hands and cooled the other, he immersed both of them simultaneously in the same basin of water.
There are, however, such sicknesses which have always appeared periodically up to now, and which, because of our lack of medical skill, have regularly led to death. This does not hold for the intentional quasi-relation, Brentano suggests.
As we have noted, psychology has already made attempts to solve this problem, and it does not seem that all its efforts psycholohy that direction have been without success.
Hence natural science may not be defined as the science of bodies nor may psychology be defined as the science of the soul. Every mental phenomenon includes something as object within itself Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint German: It is frabz mental rather than physical.
The Concept and Purpose of Psychology 2. Husserl, Edmund,Logical Investigationstrans. This implies that the most important fruits which psychology may bear for practical life, lie in the future.
This page was standdpoint edited on 23 Octoberat A judgment, thus, is a presentation plus a qualitative mode of acceptance or denial. By the same token, psycholoogy the case of voluntary movements of the body, brentanno psychologist will have to establish the ultimate and immediate mental antecedents of the whole series of physical changes which are connected with them, but it will be the task of the physiologist to investigate the ultimate and immediate physical causes of sensation, even though in so doing he must obviously also look at the mental phenomenon.
He first characterizes this notion with empirkcal following words, which have become the classical, albeit not completely unambiguous formulation of the intentionality thesis: Rather brentno accepting the notion of an immanent content, Meinong argues that the intentional relation is always a relation between the mental act and an object.
Thus, for example, the idea of extension and three dimensional space develops from kinaesthetic sensations. There is no such thing as the soul, at least standdpoint as far as we are concerned, but psychology can and should exist nonetheless, although, to use Albert Lange’s paradoxical expression, farnz will be a psychology without a soul. Sensory and Noetic Consciousness. Let us not, then, be unduly disturbed by the inevitable encroachment of physiology upon psychology and vice versa.
This is a survey of psychological problems from the point of view of one of the most important advocates of psychology as a purely phenomenalistic science. These people do not deny that thinking and willing really exist. Die Lehre vom richtigen Urteiled. We have no right, therefore, to believe that the objects of so-called external perception really exist as they appear to us.