PDF | On Jan 1, , Samir Amr and others published Jabir ibn Hayyan. writer authoring books on philosophy, books. Jābir ibn Hayyan (also known by his Latinized name Geber, circa –) was a contemporary of the first Abbasids, who ruled circa – Find Jabir ibn Hayyan books online. Get the best Jabir ibn Hayyan books at our marketplace.

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Many of these works were translated and distributed throughout the learning centers of medieval Europe under the latinized form of Jabir’s name, Geber. Journal of Comparative Poetics. Meri ; Jere L.

Jabir ibn Hayyan – Wikipedia

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According to the philologist-historian Paul KrausJabir cleverly mixed in his alchemical writings unambiguous references to the Ismaili or Qarmati movement.

These are not the elements that we know by those names, but certain principles to which those elements are the closest approximation in nature. The scope of the corpus is vast: That they are based on Muslim alchemical theory and practice is not questioned, but the same may be said of most Latin treatises on alchemy of jsbir period; and from various turns of phrase it seems likely that their author could read Arabic.

Holmyard attempts to piece together a life of Jabir from a variety of early sources and a knowledge of the history of the times. The works in Latin under the name hayyxn Geber include these important chemical processes Von Meyer, The works ascribed to Geber introduced improved laboratory equipment such as water baths, furnaces, and systems for filtration and distillation.

Jabir ibn Hayyan

Retrieved 15 October The question at once arises whether the Latin works are genuine translations from the Arabic, or written by a Latin author and, according to common practice, ascribed to Jabir in order to heighten their authority. Whatever their origin, they became the principal authorities in early Western alchemy and held that position for two or three centuries.


Jabir ibn Hayyan c. Heinrichs, Brill, Many of Jabir’s works, however, are written in esoteric prose that are hardly decipherable in a scientific context.

Alchemy was the study of ways to turn base metals such as tin or lead into Gold. His family fled to Yemen, [18] [20] perhaps to some of their relatives in the Azd tribe, [21] where Jabir grew up and studied the Quran, mathematics and other subjects. In another reference al-Nadim reports that a group of philosophers jabif Jabir was one of their own members.

The nature and properties of elements was defined through numeric values assigned the Arabic consonants present in their name, ultimately culminating in the number Jabir’s alchemical investigations ostensibly revolved around the ultimate haygan of takwin —the artificial creation of life.

For example, lead was cold and dry and gold was hot and moist. Indeed for their age they have a remarkably hayjan of fact air about them, theory being stated with a minimum of prolixity and much precise practical detail being given. Whether or not he was genuinely the author of all the works attributed to him, his contributions were substantial, laying the foundations of modern chemistry.

The Three Books on Alchemy by Geber, the Great Philosopher and Alchemist – World Digital Library

Minorsky, The Encyclopaedia of IslamVol. Others say his teacher was another Jafar, the Barmecide vizier Jafar ibn Yahya, who was put to death inby the ruler Harun al-Rashid. It has been asserted that Jabir was a student of the sixth Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq and Harbi al-Himyari ; [6] [22] however, other scholars have questioned this theory.


Wikiquote has quotations related to: Rowman Altamira, page It is therefore difficult at best for the modern reader to discern which aspects of Jabir’s work are to be read as ambiguous symbols, and what is to be taken literally. The development of modern chemistry. He proposed three categories: Many of Jabir’s writings are devoted to alchemy, and his system, often couched in obscure phraseology, bore some unique characteristics compared to earlier authors on the same subject.

The Three Books on Alchemy by Geber, the Great Philosopher and Alchemist

Hayyan became enmeshed in the political intrigues of his time, and was executed shortly after Jabir’s birth. Retrieved 11 June Nabir 11 February Another work, the Katib al-Fihrist of Ibn al-Nadim, part biography and part bibliography, written aroundascribes a long list of works to Jabir and insists hayyqn he was a real personage. After the Abbasids took power, Jabir went back to Kufa.

But they also provided medieval inestigators a new source of important and practical chemical knowledge.

The Liber fornacumDe investigatione perfectionis and De inventione veritatis “are merely extracts from or summaries of the Summa Perfectionis Magisterii with later additions. Le corpus hzyyan ecrits jabiriens. Jabir kept a working laboratory in Kufa, the ruins of which were discovered two hundred years after his death. When that family fell from grace inJabir was placed under house arrest in Kufa, where he remained until his death.